Buddhists believe that at death, a person goes through a process called samsara, or reincarnation, and can be reborn as a god, demigod, human, animal, hungry ghost or hell creature, depending on his thoughts and actions during life. While Buddhism doesn't require specific practices at death, the rituals that do take place focus on helping the individual achieve a better station in the next life.
Rituals Before Death
Buddhists believe that death is a natural part of life and that its final moments can significantly impact the individual's rebirth. When death is imminent, Buddhists focus on caring for the individual's mental and spiritual state, rather than unnaturally prolonging his life, to encourage a good rebirth. To that end, Buddhist pre-death rituals center around keeping the person calm, peaceful, and focused on the good deeds performed during his life.
Creating a Peaceful Environment
Relatives will place images of Buddha and flowers around the room to keep the person calm in the face of death. Not only does this create a calm, peaceful environment, but helps maintain focus on religious thoughts and the good deeds performed during life. A mandala blanket, used during meditation, may also be used as a visual to help keep the person focused on good deeds and religious thoughts.
Presence of Monks
The family or friends may ask a monk to come and chant verses or read prayers, which helps the individual remain calm and peaceful in the face of his impending death. The monk can also encourage the dying person to focus on the good deeds performed during his life.
It is not uncommon for the dying or his family to bestow gifts to the monastic community to curry good favor.
Performance and Transfer of Good Deeds
Family and friends may perform good deeds in the dying person's name (if possible, the person should acknowledge the actions). These good deeds are transferred to the dying person, in the hope of achieving more merit at death for a better rebirth.
Like those performed pre-death, post-death rituals are intended to aid in attaining a desirable rebirth and give merit to the deceased. Some rituals are general to Buddhism, while others are practiced only by certain cultures.
Buddhists believe that chanting texts from Buddhism will generate merit that can be transferred to the deceased and help him in his rebirth.
Cloth of the Dead
Theravada Buddhists (those from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia) can incur good favor for the deceased by offering the monks white cloth to be used in the creation of robes. The merit generated by this deed is transferred to the deceased by pouring water into an overflowing cup while performing chants.
Southeast Asian Rituals
Buddhists in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries practice these rituals.
- Offering of Food - Before the body is buried or cremated, relatives offer food to the monks who visit the home in the name of the deceased. Like other offerings, this helps bring merit to the deceased to help in his rebirth.
Sri Lankan Rituals
In addition to the offering of cloth to the deceased practiced by Theravada Buddhists, Sri Lankan Buddhists have several other death rituals to aid the deceased in his rebirth.
- Preaching - A week following the funeral, Buddhist monks in Sri Lanka return to the deceased's home and preach an hourlong sermon with relatives and neighbors. Family, friends and neighbors enjoy a meal together afterward.
- Offering - Sri Lankan Buddhists make offerings in the name of the deceased three months after the funeral, and every year after that. The purpose is to continue to gain good merit that can be transferred to the deceased to aide in his rebirth.
Tibetan Buddhist death rituals follow the tradition of earning merit for the deceased but were also born out of practicality.
- Sky Burial - A sky burial is the practice of leaving the body to be eaten by vultures or other animals. It is another way for the deceased to earn merit posthumously, as it is considered a final act of generosity to the animals. The sky burial also developed for practical reasons. The scarcity of firewood in Tibet made burning the corpse difficult, and the ground is not always suitable for burial.
- Reading of Texts - During the Bardo, the 49 days between death and when rebirth is thought to occur, relatives read texts specific to any practices the deceased focused on. The readings help the deceased in his journey to rebirth.
Chinese and Laotian Buddhists celebrate Ghost Month, a time when the gates of hell are opened, and hungry ghosts are thought to walk the earth in search of food and gifts. During this time, friends and relatives offer food, incense, paper money and other gifts to the deceased spirits to garner good merit for their loved ones. Paper lanterns in the shape of lotus flowers are also placed in lakes and rivers to guide the way for the spirits.
The ultimate goal of Buddhism is for every individual to become free of samsara and achieve enlightenment, or nirvana. This state can take many lifetimes to achieve. Until then, Buddhist death rituals help those practicing the faith attain a good rebirth to aid them on their journey.